5. Define Science, Engineering & Technology. How requirement analysis of an electronic product is done?

Sunday, 9 February 2014

5. Define Science, Engineering & Technology. How requirement analysis of an electronic product is done?


Science :

•Knowledge attained through study & practice.
•Derived from the Latin word ‘scientia’ means ‘knowledge’.
•Uses observation & experimentation to describe & explain natural phenomena.
•Often describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from it.
•It seeks to explain the natural events in a reproducible way.

Technology :

•Originated from Greek word ‘technologia’.
•Scientific  method & material used to achieve a commercial objective.
•Use & application of knowledge to attain some practical result.
•Consequence of science & engineering.
•Emphasis on a specific area of expertise.

Engineering:

•Application of scientific & mathematical principles to practical ends.
•Includes the ‘economic usage of natural resources’ also.
•Typically a goal-oriented process.
•Use result & techniques from science & technology.

The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science  is the reasoned  investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal  world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method .Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety

REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS.

•Analysing various needs of the customer so that those who really design the products ‘fully understand’ the actual needs of the customer.

•Identifying customer needs.
        2 types of customers :
                   1.Lead users : experience new needs, ahead of most  customers, and need innovations.
                   2.End user : typically the normal user who just uses/ consumes the product.
       The process of identififying customer needs includes 5 steps :
                   1.Gather raw data from customers.
                           o Involves contact with customers & experience with the use-environment.
                           o 3 methods commonly used :
                                 →  Interviews
                                 →  Focus groups: a moderator facilitates a 2 hour discussion with a group of
                                       8-12 customers.
                                  → Observing the product in use.
                           o Documenting interactions with customers.
                                  ♦ 4 methods commonly used :
                                       → Audio-recording.
                                       → Notes.
                                       → Video recording.
                                       → Still photography.
                  2.Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs.
                           o Customer needs expressed as written statements called ‘need statement.
                  3.Organize the needs into a hierarchy.
                           o Need statement classified into
                                       →  Primary needs : Most general needs.
                                       →  Secondary needs: needs in more detail.
                           o Procedure :
                                       →  Print / write each need statement on a separate card or self stick note.
                                       →  Eliminate redundant statements.
                                       →  Group each cards according to the similarity of needs they express.
                                       →  For each group, choose a label.
                                       →  Consider creating supergroups consisting of 5 groups.
                                       →  Review & edit the organized need statements.
                 4.Establish the relative importance of the needs.
                           o Done through ‘survey’.
                                       → Can be done in person, telephone ,e-mail etc.
                           o Survey-responses used to assign to establish the relative importance of needs.
                 5.Reflect on the result & the process.
                           o Final step.
                           o Verify that have gone in the right direction through interactions with customers.

These steps helps in :

o Establishing product specifications.
o Generating product concepts.
o Selecting a product concept for further development.


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